Union of the Descendants
of the Hereditary Commanders and Knights
of the Russian Grand Priory
of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem

(Union des descendants des Commandeurs Hereditaires et Chevaliers du Grand Prieure Russe de l'Order de St. Jean de Jerusalem)

Disclaimer: The details here presented are compiled from such sources as were available to the author. He will willingly correct and errors, omissions and make such necessary additions as to correct the history.  He apologises beforehand for any errors, inadvertent  or otherwise, and will make such corrections as are needed to produce an accurate account. A bibliography of sources is given at the end of this history.

Dr Michael Foster.



THE RUSSIAN GRAND PRIORY IN EXILE FOUNDED IN 1928.

In 1917, the Russian Revolution placed the Russian society in disarray. A number of Russian Nobles escaped and settled in France following the upheaval. On the 24th November 1925 the "Union de la Noblesse Russe" was formed and incorporate under French Law on the 14th February 1926.

The unity of Russian Nobles which had been maintained in Paris led to discussions about the Order of St. John, and in 1928 a number of Hereditary Commanders of the Russian Grand Priory had arranged to meet in Paris. Of the 21 possible families entitled to provide a Commander for membership, thirteen had been traced as surviving. Despite attempts in the preceding decade to trace the remaining families, the research had failed to be conclusive. In some cases the family line had thought to have become extinct, although more recently, with ongoing research, surviving families members have come to light.

As a result of the contact between Commanders, on the 24th June 1928, the Feast of the Birth of St John the Baptist, twelve Russian Hereditary Commanders, a Polish Catholic Hereditary Commander and three aspirants met and signed a declaration whereby they re-established the activity of the Russian Grand Priory of the Order of Malta and declared that the re-establishment was by virtue of their inviolable privilege as Russian Nobility.

The twelve Commanders were; Leo Narichkine, Count Dmitri Chérémeteff, Prince Serge Bielosselsky-Bielozersky, Prince Serge Dolgorouki, Denis Davydoff, Paul Demidoff, Prince Nikita Troubetzkoy, Count Hilarion Worontzoff-Dachkoff, Count Dmitri Olsoufieff, Dmitri Jerebzoff, Dmitri Boutourline, Nicholas Tchirikoff.
According to Professor Baron Michael de Taube, Prince Vladimir Bariatinsky, the thirteenth Hereditary Commander, was not present at the meeting in June 1928, but joined after the organisation once it had been formed. His signature is absent from those who signed the foundation document.


Union Lapel Badge

Present at the gathering in 1928 was Count Vladimir Borch, a Hereditary Commander of the Catholic Grand Priory of Russia. Also present were Aspirants for Knighthood, Prince Vladimir Galitzine, Count Alexander Mordvinoff, and Count Andre Lanskoi.
The organisation formed by Hereditary Commanders eventually took the title of the "Union des descendants des commandeurs et chevaliers hereditaires du Grand Prieure Russe de l'Ordre de St. Jean de Jerusalem".
The Badge of the Russian Grand Priory in exile was the "Croix de Malte blanche à huit pointes avec un écusson d'or le superposé portant l'Aigle Noire bicéphale de Russie - White Cross of Malta with eight points with a gold shield superimposed carrying the Black double-headed Eagle of Russia."

The meeting made Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovitch the Grand Prior, with a request that the Grand Duke approach King Alfonso XIII of Spain to undertake the role of being Protector to the Order, as King Alfonso had been given the protection of Russians abroad by Emperor Nicholas II.

Informal discussions established the limitations of the King of Spain, who had been effectively sidelined by the Prime Minister Miguel Primo de Rivera, who ruled as a Dictator. In addition to being Grand Prior, as a result of these discussions, Grand Duke Alexander also took on the role of Protector, and sent a courtesy letter to Alphonso III, informing him of the formation of an Association of Hereditary Commanders of the Russian Grand Priory


Grand Duke Alexander

The Hereditary Commanders who re-established the activities of the Russian Grand Priory were mainly Orthodox with a certain exception of the one Roman Catholic of Polish descent. The Roman Catholic Priory had ended in 1810, when the Russian organisation was made a domestic Russian Order. The continuing Priory, was that which was created by Imperial Authority - the Russian Grand Priory, which from the first allowed Christians of other denominations into membership.

As at least one of the Hereditary Commanders was a Roman Catholic (of Polish descent), the Association was continuing the ecumenical tradition of the Russian Grand Priory's foundation. The continuing Priory was that founded by Emperor, Emperor Paul I as Grand Master in 1799, consisting mainly of  Orthodox nobles, but which from the first allowed Christians of other denominations into membership. Whilst this aspect remained true of the continuing Priory in exile, with the failure of discussions with the Grand Magistracy in Rome, Commander Borch transferred to the Roman Order of Malta's Polish Association.

A LINK WITH THE PRE-REVOLUTIONARY GRAND PRIORY

Prince Paul Alexandrovitch Demidoff who was listed in the Almanach de St. Petersbourg 1913-1914 page 178 as "ancient officer du reg. des chevaliers gardes, commandant Hereditaire de l'Ordre de Malte" was one of the Hereditary Commanders who re-established the Russian Grand Priories activities in exile, thereby providing unquestionable proof of the continuous existence of those who were not members of the Roman Catholic Order but, who claimed to be members of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.


Prince Paul Demidoff

In September 1929 de Taube was charged with the task of seeking rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Grand Magistracy. Discussions took place during the course of two and a half years. The eventual reply from Rome was given on the 12th February 1932, and was extremely disappointing, as it had misread the 1810 Ukase as creating the suppression of the Russian Grand Priory. However, almost as a contradiction, it was also stated that the reconstruction of the Priory could be undertaken, only if the members became Roman Catholics. Following this disappointment, de Taube began to gather the necessary documents with which to begin a refutation of what he saw as "l'incompréhensible grosse erreur".

HOUSE OF ROMANOV, ROYAL PROTECTORS OF THE RUSSIAN GRAND PRIORY.

The concerns of the 1928 Association of Hereditary Commanders were quite modest as it sought to continue the Russian tradition of St. John. In contrast, the so-called "American Grand Priory" founded in the mid 1950s but which had falsified its beginnings to 1908, and had imitated the pedigree of Russian Hereditary Commanders was more pretentious. The American Priory had from its foundation sought to re-invent the Order itself, complete with a Grand Master. From the outset the mimic "Russian tradition" American group declared itself to be the Convent of the Order of St John.

The claims of the 1928 group were more humbler, in that it was an Association of Hereditary Commanders brought together to continue the activities of the Russian Grand Priory. They were not claiming that the Order subsisted in themselves.

Their concern was to ensure legitimacy, which they saw in the continuation of the Royal Household of Russia providing a Protector to the Russian Grand Priory, and that this 'protection' was a commitment made by Emperor, Paul I, and binding on his successors in the creation of the Priory. Hence the contact with King Alfonso XIII, whom they saw as a custodian of the Royal Protectorship, to confirm Grand Duke Alexander as the Protector of the Order. The model of their existence was akin to the National Associations of the Roman Catholic Order, which had replaced the defunct Langues and Priories in various European States. Professor Baron Michael de Taube's writings make it very clear that the Association (or Union) of Hereditary Commanders, was an organisation within and part of the Russian Grand Priory in exile.


King Alfonso XIII


Grand Duke Andrew

Grand Duke Alexander died in 1933, after which Grand Duke Andrew Wladimirovich was elected Protector and Grand Prior of the Association. Andrew was the son of Alexander's cousin. Grand Duke Kyrill Wladimirovich, Andrew's elder brother and claimant to the Russian throne had formally passed on to his brother, responsibility for matters concerning the Russian Grand Priory.

In the summer of 1938, the Danish Committee wrote to Commander G. Gadd, Grand Duke Kyrill's personal representative in Copenhagen, about the possibility of joining the Russian Grand Priory of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Gadd suggested, that a direct approach to Grand Duke Kyrill ought to be made.

When Grand Duke Kyrill received the Danish Committee's letter, he passed it on to his younger brother Grand Duke Andrew, who had accepted responsibility for the Russian Grand Priory. Grand Duke Andrew, then asked Baron Michael de Taube the legal consultant to the Hereditary Commanders to discuss the matter with the Danes. Baron Michael de Taube had been Professor of Law at St Petersburg University and first legal adviser for the Russian Foreign Office, Senator of Russia and a member of the Council of the Empire. de Taube continued his work on International Law in exile in France, where he published a number of papers, cited by other authorities on International Law.

Initially the first consideration was to widen membership of the Russian Grand Priory itself to include in a seamless way, a Danish group. The final conclusion of the discussions, was that a Priory would be created to serve the "North", under the title of Dacia. Authorisation for the creation of a Danish Priory was granted by Grand Duke Andrew, October 19th, 1938, and the Priory under the name of "The Ecclesiastical Knightly Order of Malta of Saint John of Jerusalem, Priory of Saint Andrew", and began its formal life on April 10th, 1939. It was later to be known as "The Autonomous Priory of Dacia of the Order of Malta". The Priory was declared to be “under the name of The Grand Priory of the North, in all respects to be the legal successor of the Grand Priory of Russia.” (Letter to the Dacia Priory from Baron Michael de Taube 8th June 1939). Prebend Wenck von Wenckheim as leader of the group became the first Prior. The war years halted any real activity of the Priory, and Baron Michael de Taube and Grand Duke Andrew gave assistance in continuing the work in the post war period from 1950 onward.

Grand Duke Andrew fully acknowledged Dacia, and declared himself to be their Protector as well as being Protector to the Paris Group. In a letter to the Dacia Priory 17th November 1950, he writes; "The Protectorship of the Russian Grand Priory of the Order of Malta, which I have taken over after the death of my cousin H.I.H. Grand Duke Alexander embraces naturally also the Danish Priory (Prioratus Daciae) even though this became an autonomous part of the Grand Priory of Russia created in summer 1939".

Recognising the need to regularise their exilic existence, on the 9th December 1953, the Hereditary Commanders framed a constitution to govern their affairs in conformity with the foundation Ukases issued by Emperor Paul I. The wording of the Constitution was approved by an expert in Russian and International Law; Baron Michael de Taube. The Constitution was needed to proceed with an Incorporation in France of their Association which was achieved on the 15th February 1955, when the Association registered as the "Russian Grand Priory of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem".

On the 9th December 1953, the Hereditary Commanders held a reunion in Paris and drew up a Constitution for the Russian Grand Priory in exile. In February 1955, the exilic Grand Priory based in Paris was registered as a Foreign Association under French Law as "The Russian Grand Priory of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem".

The pressure to resolve the Association's identity came from the fact that the original members were becoming scarce. Grand Duke Andrew died in the following year, 1956. Grand Duke Kyrill's son Grand Duke Vladimir then took on the role of Protector of the Order, but declined the post of Grand Prior. The practical leadership of the Grand Priory was taken over by Hereditary Commander Nicholas Tchirikoff as Dean, until his death in 1974. The Secretary of the Paris Group, General Georges Serguéevitch Rticheff died in 1975, leaving the group leaderless. Never-the-less the tradition has continued with various new initiatives into the third millennium, led by Russian Nobles who are descendants of the Hereditary Commanders, some of whom are based in Paris, and one of whom is listed as a member of the Order prior to its demise.


"REVIVALS" OF THE RUSSIAN GRAND PRIORY.

Most 'self-styled' Johannine Orders use the designation "Sovereign Order" in their titles. Below are notes on seven such 'Orders'.

Nothing was heard about a Russian-American tradition of St. John until the late 1950s, when an organisation emerged complete with an invented pre-history which alleged that the organisation had been founded by Russian Hereditary Commanders, at New York in 1908, by Russian Hereditary Commanders. On the 2nd May 1960, a letter was written by the General Secretary of the Union of the Descendants of the Hereditary Commanders and Knights of the Russian Grand Priory of the Order of St John of Jerusalem, which stated that the American Grand Priory "wrongfully claims to have inherited the rights of the Grand Master Emperor Paul I of Russia.". They certainly viewed the American Grand Priory with suspicion. In this the Paris Group was right. Perhaps what may not assist clarity is an offshoot of one of these "Sovereign" Orders which uses the title of the Union of Commanders.

Charles Pichel and the Shickshinny Order and its filiants.
The American mimic "Order" (created by a Charles Pichel and originally based in Shickshinny Pennsylvania) ; "Sovereign Order of  St. John, Knights of Malta" led to a number of offshoots. One led by a Frenchman Colonel Paul de Granier de Cassagnac; "Sovereign Order of  St. John, Knights Hospitaller" led to another of the same name in 1965 of which King Peter II of Yugoslavia, a reigning Orthodox monarch in exile, had become head. His Order, which had expanded to Europe, inherited a pre-history, that of Pichel's 'Order'.


King Peter II
of Yugoslavia

King Peter counted himself as the legal hereditary custodian of the relics of the Order of St. John. The relics had been sent to Princess Yelenda, sister of King Alexander in 1928, bequested from the deceased mother of the last Emperor. The relics were placed into safe keeping during the Second World and have remained in Yugoslavia since. The accession of King Peter's leadership allowed the American self-styled Orders to be taken more seriously. His leadership provided a fons honorum which transformed the organisation into a true knightly fraternity. King Peter's "Sovereign Order of  St. John, Knights Hospitaller" (known by the acronym of  'OSJ') attracted into membership for a very brief period, two of the Hereditary Commanders, providing the Order with a member who belonged to the historic Russian tradition of St. John.

The filiants of the King Peter Order.
The King Peter Order split into many factions following the King's death in 1970. One of these was led by Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy; "Sovereign Order of St. John, Knights Hospitaller". Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy credited himself as the Hereditary Commander (the eligible candidate was a distant cousin). Troubetzkoy's 'Order' has led to yet another 'Order' led by a Russian Noble.

According to the correspondence of Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy, and the history of the Order, authored by Robert Formhals, in the 1972, Count Nicholas A. Bobrinskoy, joined Troubetzkoy, and together with a genuine candidate for the office of Hereditary Commander, Prince Serge Serguiévitch Belosselsky Belozersky, (who was also a member of the King Peter Order) formed a Priory in New York. This became the basis for a new 'Order'.


Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy


Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy

Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy was the younger brother of Nikita Troubetzkoy who had been a member of the Paris Group.
Prince Serge Serguiévitch Belosselsky Belozersky was the son of a founding member of the Paris Group (Prince Serge Constantinovitch Belosselsky Belozersky).
Count Nicholas' older half brother, Count Alexis, had been confirmed as the Hereditary Commander for the Samoiloff Commandery by Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovitch Romanoff.

Whilst all three founding members of the new Priory had relatives in the Paris Group, they themselves had never been members.

In 1974, according to Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy some discussions took place with a meeting at Capri between Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy, Baron Eric de Kolb, Wartenberg, Count A. Orssich, Prince Kyril Scherbatow of the ex-King Peter Order and Baron Sergei von Bennigsen, who was Chancellor of the Most Sacred Order of the Orthodox Hospitallers. At that time H.I.H. Prince Dimitri Alexandrovitch Romanoff of Russia (1901-1980) was the Grand Prior of the Most Sacred Order. Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy was brought into the picture just after the meeting. At the time he appears to have been the Prior of the ex-King Peter Order's New York Priory. It appears that as a result of this encounter, Count Nicholas is listed as the Lieutenant Grand Prior of an alliance of Orders consisting of his Priory, other King Peter II units under Troubetzkoy and the group, which made up the Most Sacred Orthodox Order. The alliance or merger between the Orders did not last long and seems to have been abandoned by 1975.

In that year of 1975, a scheme was mooted by Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy, a member of the King Peter Order to create an "Order of Malta, Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, The Hospitallers of the Orthodox Tradition of the Russian Grand Priory" in which he  hoped to absorb the surviving Hereditary Commanders with the weakened King Peter OSJ owing to the death of the King in 1970.
The proposals came to nothing, and were Troubetzkoy's attempt to revive a 'Russian Grand Priory' using the framework of King Peter's OSJ. Troubetzkoy continued to head the ex-King Peter OSJ as Lieutenant Grand Master, until the appointment of King Peter's brother, Prince Andrew as the Grand Master of the ex-King Peter OSJ, once led by Troubetzkoy. Under Troubetzkoy the title of his "OSJ" was; "Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem Knights Hospitaller (Former Russian Grand Priory of the Order of Malta in St Petersburg)"

Other genuine Russian Nobles joined Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy, and in 1977, and at a meeting of Russian Nobles, at which three Hereditary Commander families were represented, Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy was elected Grand Prior of his "revived" 'Russian Grand Priory'.


Prince Serge Serguiévitch Belosselsky Belozersky


Prince Vladimir Bariatinsky

The official title given to the new "Order" as led by Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy is "The Sovereign Order of Orthodox Knights Hospitaller Saint John of Jerusalem - former Grand Priory in St Petersburg". "OOSJ" for short.

Whilst it is claimed that the new 'Order' was founded by a meeting of Hereditary Commanders, apart from Prince Serge Serguiévitch Belosselsky Belozersky, it appears that there were no other individuals who were indisputably qualified to make that claim. This 'Order' does have the backing of the Orthodox Church, and has done much toward raising vast sums of money for works of charity.

Since November 2004, this 'Order' includes "Union des Commandeurs et Chevaliers Héréditaires" registered in Alsace amongst others by Prince Vladimir Bariatinsky imitating the historic "Union" of the Russian Hereditary Commanders group in Paris, begun in 1928. This "Union" is not a continuation of the 1928, group and its birth is described in an official notice issued within the "OOSJ".

Prince Andrei Vladimirovitch Bariatinsky, Prince Vladimir's grandfather was a member of the Paris Group, although he was not a founder of the original group in 1928 (as is claimed), but joined after its creation (see above).

There is certainly no historical link between the previous Union of 1928-1975, and the novum organisation of 2004, with the exception that it can be argued that members of the novum "Union" had past relatives who were members of the historic Paris Group.
It is instructive to note that the "Union" of 1928, became an incorporated organisation in 1955, but under the legal title of "Grand Prieuré Russe de l'Ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem", and the Union title was simply a working title from 1958 onward! Thus there was no "legal" organisation under the "Union" title - this was simply an instrument within the Russian Grand Priory.

The latter two "Revivals" in terms of claiming the identity of the legal Russian Grand Priory, do have leadership from those of Russian descent, however they have no authority from the Paris Group of 1928 - 1975, which allows any claim to be the succeeding, or continuing group.

More curious is the adoption by the web pages, which carry the novum "Union" details, of the title; "l'Ordre Orthodoxe de Saint Jean (ancien Grand Prieuré Russe à Saint Pétersbourg)" (see http://www.oosj.org/francais/sommaire.html) almost as it were a new "Order" separate from the "The Sovereign Order of Orthodox Knights Hospitaller Saint John of Jerusalem" as led by Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy.


Further schisms from the original Pichel "Order".
In 1974, a further 'Order' split from the Pichel led 'Order' to create the "Sovereign Order of St John, Knights of Malta". This split again in 1994 with an 'Order' of the same name which gained King Michael of Romania as their Protector.
In 1991, a further Order emerged from the Pichel 'Order' led by 'Prince Grand Master' John Grady; "Sovereign Order of St John, Knights of Malta". In 1997, Prince Serge Troubetzkoy provided his full support for the Grady Order with a signed Document, claiming that as he represented in his family tree three lines of Hereditary Commanders, most of the other lines having died out conveyed "the full authority and hereditary status of the Russian Hereditary Commanders" to John Grady.



Seal of the Russian Grand Priory 1928

Union des descendants des Commandeurs Hereditaires
et Chevaliers du Grand Prieure Russe
de l'Order de St. Jean de Jerusalem


Sources used:

*Bobrinskoy Count Nicholas A, Informal and Confidential History of the Revival of the Order of the Orthodox Knights Saint John of Jerusalem by Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy" - not dated but circa 1994. Archives of the "Russian Grand Priory of Malta" St Paul's Street, Malta.
*Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy Grand Priory and Countess Tatiana Bobrinskoy Grand Chancellor, Sovereign Order of the Orthodox Knights Hospitaller of Saint John of Jerusalem, Official Notice Faxed 22nd November 2004 concerning the creation of Union des Descendants des Commandeurs et Chevaliers Héréditaires on the 19th November 2004.
*Bobrinskoy, Countess Tatania, "The Sovereign Order of the Orthodox Knights Hospitaller of Saint John of Jerusalem Chronological account of its revival in USA" circa 1998.
*Cardile, KSJ, Dr. Paul J, The Sovereign Order of the Orthodox Knights Hospitaller of St. John of Jerusalem, A Short History. International Headquarters and Secretariat, New York, 1993.
*Cardile, Paul J, "The Sovereign Order of Orthodox Knights Hospitaller of Saint John of Jerusalem - Pro Fide - Pro Utilitate Hominum - N.D. circa 1993, page two. In the introduction it is described as a "guide in matters of protocol and regalia".
*Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, The Hospitallers, Knights of Malta, Bulletin, Special Issue in Honor of the newly elected Lieutenant Grand Master H.S.H. Prince Serge Belosselsky-Belozersky, 475 Fifth Avenue - New York, N. Y. 10017, U.S.A. 1968
*Formhals, Robert Willard Yates. White Cross : Story of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, with particular emphasis on the Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitaller since 1964 under Royal Charter of Peter II, King of Yugoslavia. Sanghals Publishers, Camarillo, California, USA, 1979.
*Joint Meeting; Minutes of the Convocation of the Bailiffs, Grand Priors. Priors, and Independent Commanders of the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem and the Sovereign Orthodox Order of Knights Hospitallier of St. John of Jerusalem. New York Athletic Club, 180 Central Park South, New York City, U.S.A . March 31, April 1 and 2, 1978. Archives of the King Peter Order in Belgium.
*Conference Report. Report of Conference on June 28, 1994 between Representatives of the Sovereign Order of the Orthodox Knights Hospitaller of Saint John of Jerusalem and the Order of St John of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitaller, Under the Constitution and the Royal Charter of his late Majesty, King Peter II of Yugoslavia, Russian Grand Priory, Malta. July 5, 1994.
*Letter from Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy to Professor Tonna Barthet of Malta proposing a merger between the OOSJ and the King Peter Order, as under Prince Andrei Karageorgevitch, 9th August 1981.
*The Minutes of the Meeting of the Grand Magestery, of the Sovereign Order of St John of Jerusalem, Hospitallers, June 25th 1977, Cleveland Ohio, U.S.A.
*(Former Russian Grand Priory of the Order of Malta in St Petersburg) Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem Knights Hospitaller, Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Grand Council. Spa Hotel California U.S.A.28March 1980 - 30 March 1980.
*The letters of Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy to Dr John Grady.Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy wrote a series of letters to Dr John Grady (Grand Master of a traditional Catholic Order of St John which broke from the Pichel Order in the 1980s) in the period 1983 to 2001. These letters mention Troubetzkoy's relationship with Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy and provide information on the foundation of the OOSJ. They are held in the archives of the Grady Order.
*Cave-Brown-Cave, Bt, KCSJ, Sir Robert. The Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem Knights Hospitaller, A Short History, 900 Years of Chivalry (1099 to date), The OSJ Historical Committee, The Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem Knights Hospitaller. Vancouver, B.C. Canada 1997.
*Formhals, Robert Willard Yates. Story of the Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitaller under Royal Charter of Peter II, King of Yugoslavia, in Ed. Hartwell, Sir Rodney. The Knights Hospitallers, Volume I, Number 1. Sir Rodney Hartwell, California USA April-May-June 1975.
*Formhals, Robert Willard Yates. White Cross : Story of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, with particular emphasis on the Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitaller since 1964 under Royal Charter of Peter II, King of Yugoslavia. Sanghals Publishers, Camarillo, California, USA, 1979.
*Hodges, Douglas and Podesta, Roland. Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitaller, Historical Information. Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitaller, Grand Priory in Australia 1989.
*Joly, Guy-Jean.  Millenary chronology of the hospitallers of St John - OSJ, Publibook.com, Paris 2001.
*Muraise, Eric, (Colonel M. Suire) Histoire Sincere Des Ordres De L'Hopital, Fernand Lanore Paris 1978.
*Pichel, Thourot. History of the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Knights of Malta: Jerusalem 1050-1291, Cyprus 1292-1310, Rhodes 1311-1523, Malta 1530-1798, Russia 1798-1815, U.S.A. 1908-. Crux News Service, Schickshinny, Pa., 1957.
*Quelen Jacques-Youenn de. Precis History and Spirituality of the OSJ. Regular Order of St John Knights Hospitallers, Publibook.com, Paris 2000.
*Smith, Harrison, & Storace, Joseph E. Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Second Edition, The Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Russian Grand Priory of Malta, Akker Print, Delft, The Netherlands 1977.
*Taube, Professor Baron Michel Alexsandrovitch, de. L'Empereur Paul I de Russie, Grand Maître de l'Ordre de Malte, et son Grand Prieuré Russe, Paris 1955.
*Brunov, Baron F. I., Aperçu des principals transactions du cabinet de Russie sous les règnes de Catherine II, Paul I, et Alexander I, St. Petersburg 1838, pages 233 and 234.
*Russian Imperial Ukases: Ukase 19.044. of 1799, Ukase 24.134. of 1810, Ukase 24.882. of 1811, Ukase 26.626. of 1817.
*Boisgelin, Louis de. Ancient and Modern Malta, and the History of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, 3 Volumes bound together. G & J Robinson, London 1804.
*Pierredon, Count Marie Henri Thierry Michel de, Histoire Politique de l'Ordre Souverain de Saint-Jean de Jerusalem, (Ordre de Malte) de 1789 à 1955, Volume 1, Paris 1956.
*Pierredon, Count Marie Henri Thierry Michel de, Histoire Politique de l'Ordre Souverain de Saint-Jean de Jerusalem, (Ordre de Malte) de 1789 à 1955, Volume 2, Paris 1963.
*Brett-Crowther M.Sc., Ph.D., D.I.C. S.Th. , Dr. Michael Richard. Orders of Chivalry under the Aegis of the Church. Lambeth Diploma of Student in Theology (S.Th.) Thesis, 1st December 1990.
*Sainty, G.S. The Orders of Saint John, American Society of the Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem, New York 1991.
*Seward, Desmond, The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders, Revised Edition, Penguin Books, London 1995.
*Pages on the http://www.oosj.org web site.


Revised 5th November 2005


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